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Crimcast is a virtual resource devoted to critical conversations about criminology and criminal justice issues. Our blogposts, twitter feeds, podcasts and other content provide an overview of trends, research, commentary and events of interest to criminal justice practitioners, academics and the general public. CrimCast is sponsored by The Center for Crime and Popular Culture, St. Francis College, Brooklyn, NY.

Filtering by Tag: victims

Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse

Nickie Phillips

The idea for a new law placing a duty on all professionals working with children to report child abuse when they come across it, has raised its head again. Paula Barrow of Manchester has started gathering signatures to get a debate in parliament on the subject http://www.change.org/en-GB/petitions/change-the-law-to-better-protect-vulnerable-children-like-daniel-pelka.

Teachers, youth workers, probation officers and others would be obligated to report any child abuse concerns they come across to the police or local authority Children’s Services. Meanwhile the NSPCC has come up with the idea of an additional new law to criminalise anyone who covers up child abuse they knew about (see http://www.nspcc.org.uk/news-and-views/ceo-news/reporting-abuse-policy/covering-up-abuse-crime_wda103339.html.)
All this has been played out against a back-drop of missing files listing paedophiles in high places and popular entertainers going to prison for ‘historic’ offences. But do we need such ‘mandatory reporting’ as it is known?

We have considered such laws before and some people wanted ‘mandatory reporting’ to be written in to the Children Act 1989. A preliminary discussion paper looked at the idea but ruled it out seeing reporting on a legal basis as being unnecessary because we could depend on the professional judgement of the workers concerned (1).

Practitioners and professionals have always prided themselves on providing a confidential service to members of the public, qualified only by the need to breach that confidentiality when someone was seemingly at risk of harm. The interaction between worker and service user was accorded a form of ‘confidential space’ where the boundaries were known and crossed only if necessary. Mandatory reporting will arguably reduce the size of that ‘confidential space’.
One of the problems of reporting child abuse has always been how you define child abuse. No problem when it is extreme and obvious but often it is not. The recent inclusion of ‘emotional abuse’ as child abuse for example is going to need some defining. Child abuse is not a legal term. If reporting becomes an obligation then more reporting is likely to take place just ‘to be on the safe side’ and to avoid any possible prosecution. Who would want to be the first practitioner prosecuted for not reporting?

The police and local authorities could find their workload in this area growing rapidly. That in turn could mean investigating a flood reports which will overwhelm both agencies already hit by reduced resources. When many of those reports are vague and ill-founded workers could be performing extensive investigations that could take them away from the serious allegations.
Mandatory reporting is also yet another attack on the professionalism of many workers who are considered incapable of making reporting decisions without a law. Already surrounded by bureaucracy, guidance, managerialism and procedures this will be yet another form of direction imposed on the practitioner. Who needs three years of study when it’s all in ‘the book’? Anyone else noticed that probation officers no longer need any qualifications in future?

Other questions arise. Will mandatory reporting have an impact on the therapeutic process? Will people be less open with their therapist knowing the worker has no margin of discretion and less ‘confidential space’ to work in? If a report has to be made what will happen to the working relationship that had been established?

Mandatory reporting is not the panacea it appears at first sight and in the rush to do ‘something’ we may end up with a worse situation than we have now.

(1) DHSS (1985) Review of Child Care Law HMSO: London (paras 12.3-4)

Author: Terry Thomas, Visiting Professor of Criminal Justice Studies, Leeds Metropolitan University

Craigslist: A Hub for Crime?

Nickie Phillips

Danielle Reynolds, Correspondent

craigslist

For those searching for employment, housing, friendship or products and services, the Craigslist community can be extremely useful. Millions of visitors view billions of ads each month, with the majority of users having pure intentions. During the summer of 2011 I attempted to use New York City Craigslist to find a long-term sublet apartment and to my surprise found many interesting, yet unsuitable ads under the category “Rooms & Shares.” Some ads promised negotiated or complimentary rent for “favors,” while others outright asked for a live-in “naked girlfriend.” After reading many questionable and unreliable ads, I decided to delve further into the Craigslist world to uncover if Craigslist was indeed a hub for dubious activities.

Unfortunately Craigslist is vulnerable to abuse by a minority of its users, manipulating the site as a fast and free network to others whom they plan to physically and/or financially exploit. Often the perpetrators construct false identities to initiate crime, by developing a sense of trust among Craigslist contacts prior to committing the criminal act. Various criminal acts, such as murder, prostitution, drug and weapon sales and rape, among various other scams, have been initiated or conducted via Craigslist.

Miranda Barbour and husband Elytte Barbour were accused of using a Craigslist ad for “companionship” to lure Troy LaFerrara and stabbing him 20 times, then strangling and killing him, discarding the body approximately 100 miles northwest of Philadelphia. Miranda claimed that she used Craigslist to meet “unhappy men” and charge as much as $850 for a “delightful conversation.” During an interview with CNN reporter Francis Scarcella, Barbour admitted to almost 100 killings over a 6 year period, occurring in Alaska, Texas, North Carolina and California. In Ohio, Richard Beasley was convicted for killing 3 men who responded to a Craigslist ad for work on a cattle farm.

The most notorious Craigslist murder, however, refers to Philip Markoff, known as the “Craigslist Killer,” which inspired the 2011 Lifetime movie. The movie, based on true events, tells of a pre-med student who found his victims through Craigslist ads for erotic services, then attacking and/or murdering them upon meeting with them in a motel room. Markoff was arraigned on murder charges related to the death of Julissa Brisman (2009) and was charged with two armed assaults of Trisha Leffler and Corinne Stout.

craig killers

In 2011, Californian Michael Delgado was arrested for raping a woman who he had hired from Craigslist to clean his apartment. Once within the home, Delgado sexually assaulted and raped the woman for over an hour. He was charged with false imprisonment, assault and rape with a foreign object.

In 2009, Michael John Anderson was convicted of killing Katherine Ann Olson, a nanny who replied to a Craigslist ad for a babysitter. Upon arriving to the Anderson’s home to inquire about an employment opportunity, she disappeared.

Prostitution has made good use of cyberspace, including sites such as Craigslist. Traffic to all Craigslist personal sites, including a section for romance or “missed connections,” is higher than for any online personals sites including Match.com, eHarmony, among others. “Casual Encounters” section of Craigslist has become a major hub, amassing listings with offerings for casual sex, perhaps catering to the erotic underbelly of society where courtship gives way to expediency and anonymity. Created in 2000, ads posted in this section range from prim to vulgar and often providing photographs with precisely what individuals have to offer. Founder of “Casual Encounters,” Craig Newmark, stated that the section was created in response to a demand for a division that allowed for a wide range of personal meetings and relationship options.

On September 8, 2006, “Casual Encounters” forums had been compromised in several cities by individuals posting fraudulent ads in order to obtain personal information from its users, such as email addresses, phone numbers, home addresses, photos, etc. This was the first time the section had been threatened by various prostitutes and spammers to seize and control the community. Then in 2007 a Minneapolis woman pleaded guilty in federal court for running an underage prostitution ring through Craigslist. Craigslist has become a favorite for prostitutes as it is relaxed, allows people to be more candid and anonymous, and has a lack of oversight. Although Craigslist policy prohibits pornographic photos, it is not vigorously enforced. “Casual Encounters” accounts for approximately 2% of all Craigslist postings, and since its creation it has quickly evolved to fulfill a variety of suggestive quests as it delivers erotic thrills for minimal effort.

Craigslist, although a hub for illegal activity, has also been used to combat that activity as law enforcement targets criminal users in sting operations, catching prostitutes using the site to sell their services. In Long Island, eight women were arrested on prostitution charges in a sting operation by the Nassau County Police Department who have used Craigslist to make over 70 arrests in 2013. As technology expands, the traditional sense of looking for street walkers, brothels and massage parlors has transitioned to scouring Craigslist ads and various pages on cyberspace. In July 2013 Nassau County Police Department arrested 43 women for walking the streets soliciting prostitution and 60 on Craigslist pages soliciting online.

danielle

Danielle Reynolds, Crimcast contributor, teaches Criminal Justice at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Danielle earned her Master’s degree in Criminal Justice in 2011 from John Jay College where she was awarded the Claude Hawley Medal and Graduate Scholarship. She currently lives in New York City.

Crimes Against Flounder and the "End of Fish"

Nickie Phillips

Staci Strobl, Crimcast co-founder

photo: Brian Switek

Last night I enjoyed a delicious meal of local flounder at B. Smith's in midtown Manhattan.  Unfortunately, due to illegal over-fishing, this flounder may have been in-bred in its small sub-population off the southern coast of Long Island and more of an endangered species than I had thought.

Overfishing happens when fish are caught faster than they can reproduce, often the result of the market demand for seafood, poor management of fisheries and destructive fishing techniques. If unaddressed, it can threaten marine ecosystems and imperil the availability of fish for people whose diet depends on it.  Once populations of fish get too small, they in-breed and are susceptible to diseases which can wipe out the population for good.  According to the Save Our Seas Foundation, one in five people in the world depend on fish as their main source of protein.

Under federal regulations, New York fishers can only bring in 7.6% of the total haul of flounder in a given season and each fisher has a particular individual quota per season based on the most recent data of the strength of the fish population.

As a result of the limitations, the number of licensed fishing operations in the state are down approximately 20% over the last decade.  And, many New York fishers are landing their catch in other nearby states where the quotas are higher-- even as the fish almost all end up consumed in the same place-- New York City.  Recently, Senator Chuck Schumer has called for reform of the fishing quotas which he believes are hurting New York fishermen and women.  Indeed, the declining economic viability of fishing in Long Island appears to motivate over-fishers, suggesting that important economic incentives are needed to control this harmful activity.

flounder (talkfish.org)

A recent federal prosecution shows that Long Island commercial fishers are falsifying records in order to over-fish for greater profit.  At least one of them has been held accountable.  Charles Wertz, head of C&C Ocean Fisheries, under-reported approxim

ately 80,000 pounds of fluke (summer flounder) that he over-fished between 2009 and 2011, earning an extra $200,000.  In an agreement with prosecutors, the

fisherman will lose his fishing licenses and pay over $500,000 in fines.

This enforcement activity is good news for scientists who warn we may be facing the apocalyptic "end of fish."  A 2006 study projected that fish and seafood populations will collapse by 2048.  Lead scientist on the study Boris Worm explained:

At this point, 29 percent of fish and seafood species [worldwide] have collapsed -- that is their catch has declined by 90 percent. It is a very clear trend, and it is accelerating... The good news is that it is not too late to turn things around.. [With areas of marine protection we] see that diversity of species recovered dramatically, and with it the ecosystem's productivity and stability.

Protecting fish populations through specifically regulated ocean spaces is a key part of the equation of preventing the fish apocalypse, also known as the aquacalypse, as well as working with the fishing industry to make under-fishing profitable.   For criminal justice policy makers, however, the most helpful role to play is to demand the enforcement of federal and state over-fishing laws and to make sure national laws support the United Nations' Fisheries & Aquaculture Department Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.

Crimes against fish are crimes against a humanity who needs fish protein.  But for those who don't require anthropocentric rationales, it is a matter of co-existing with other life forms on an increasingly environmentally-threatened planet.  Humans wiping out an entire form of life, consisting of multiple species who have done nothing but swim gracefully in our vast ocean waters, seems morally indefensible to me as well.

When Police Corruption is Normal: Brazil's Criminal Justice Challenge

Nickie Phillips

police-brutality-on-kids brazil

Guest post by Amanda Higazi

Police corruption, though condemned by the international community, is a transnational problem that continues to impede justice. In comparison, although both Brazil and the United States of America suffer from police corruption, the sheer prevalence of corrupt practices displayed in Brazil demand the implementation of reform measures. Modifications should be made that incorporate civilian oversight, training, effective classroom instruction, pilot programs, and an innovative system of checks and balances within the Brazilian police force.

Research shows that Brazil has violated fundamental human rights in breach of the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture which was ratified in 2007. Police abuse and torture allegations have been so prominent in prisoner facilities that they are believed to have been what incited the creation of the First Command of the Capital (PCC), arguably Brazil’s most powerful prison gang. There are also routine assassinations of street children and random civilians by police. Furthermore, there is a growing epidemic of police cover-ups for routine assassinations that often get documented on police reports as resisting arrest or retaliatory gang fire. In addition to this, there is an unlawful practice of police tampering and/or destroying evidence.

Since Brazil is only a recently democratized country, the preceding dictatorship has been effective in instilling a code of silence assumed by its citizens. Brazilians continue to live in a perpetual state of fear since witnesses are not welcome to speak out about their police or government. Due to nature of retaliatory killings by police death squads for anyone who questions the regime, there is essentially no witness protection offered. Although both the United States and Brazil evidently have a pervasive trend of police corruption, it appears to be a more prominent concern for the latter because of the severity-- and sense of normalcy-- the citizens have associated with it. Although this appears to be an inextricable quandary there has been considerable effort made towards reform.

My research has addressed the scope of these reformations, considering many of which are mirrored after programs implemented in the United States, such as civilian complaint review boards and increased police training.  Within this context, my research also addressed the rudimentary elements that are present within the society that enable police corruption to continue, as well as some of the efforts already underway to combat it. For example, the Sao Paulo government's requirement that police contact emergency response teams for assistance and treatment at the scenes of shootings, and prohibiting them from altering the scene or removing victims, will go a long way to prevent cover-ups of police abuse.  The policy should be national.  In an effort to create a better tomorrow, it is imperative that all injustices are brought to light today.

Amanda Higazi JJAY MA ICJ BLOG POST PIC

Amanda Higazi is a Masters student in the International Crime and Justice program at John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She is an advocate for international human rights and seeks to ameliorate impunity within the criminal justice system which often challenges the protection of civil liberties.

"Racism Savings Time": Trayvon Martin Verdict Sets the Clock Back 60 Years

Nickie Phillips

Image

Acclaimed comic book writer Mark Waid summed up the frustration with last Saturday's verdict when he tweeted: "Remember, it's Racism Savings Time tonight. Don't forget to set your clock back 60 years before you go to bed." Thousands of New Yorkers took to the streets last night to demonstrate their outrage that Florida's criminal justice system could end up acquitting an armed vigilante who gunned down a black kid who was returning to his home from getting a snack at a convenience store. Demonstrators also amassed in Los Angeles, D.C. and Oakland.  They are asking, who or what is to blame?  The jury?  The prosecutors? The judge?  "Stand your ground" laws?   A racist system?  A racist society?  As one demonstrator summed it up, anyone who cares about social justice knows that the wrong verdict was reached for whatever reason.

But reasons matter.  If something is broken, the fix, however difficult, must confront the reality of the problem. Here are some notable takes on why Zimmerman was acquitted and what it means for American criminal justice and society in general.

  • CNN weighs in saying that the prosecution's case was weak in a number of ways, including over-charging the defendant in the first place. The prosecutors, then, used poor discretion.
  • USA Today opines that the defense failed to refute the Zimmerman's self-defense claim adequately, suggesting they missed an opportunity to paint the picture of racism-based vigilantism that was operating in the situation.
  • One can question whether a mostly white and all female jury could truly understand the social reality of being a black male teenager.  Dr. Delores Jones-Brown has documented the "symbolic assailant" assumption that people often paste onto young black men regardless of their actual individual behavior. In this case, Trayvon, the vicitim, was under suspicion, made all the more easy by stereotypes about young black men as perpetrators.
  • Andrew Cohen in the Atlantic and Common Dreams write that the problem is Florida's Stand Your Ground laws (Cohen: "You can go looking for trouble in Florida, with a gun and a great deal of racial bias, and you can find that trouble, and you can act upon that trouble in a way that leaves a young man dead, and none of it guarantees that you will be convicted of a crime.")
  • The Martin's family attorney says that Trayvon Martin is a symbol of unequal justice in America, along with Emmett Till and Medgar Evers, suggesting that the court failed to provide justice given the context of continued American racism in the minds of criminal justice actors and/or the system itself. (Sadly, in the same press conference, Zimmerman's attorney rolled out reverse racism in suggesting that Zimmerman was vilified because he wasn't black.)
  • Gawker and Racism Review reminded us before the verdict that some media engaged in a racism smear campaign that attempted to discredit Trayvon Martin as a victim; some of these attitudes may have made their way to the courtroom or been in jurors' minds.
  • The genuine, heartfelt reactions of demonstrators say it best here; The criminal justice system just isn't in line with the present-day social justice concerns of Americans.

Crimcast takes issue with State Attorney General Angela Corey's statement that criminal justice should only take place in a courtroom and that people should refrain from having opinions on the Trayvon Martin case and its verdict.  Criminal justice takes place everywhere-- in courts but also online and in movies and on television and in schools and in one's imagination-- and it is a part of public life in a democracy.  We find Corey's appeal, which privileges alleged technical and legal competency, tragically forgets that the criminal justice system must work for the American people.  It does not exist in a vacuum.  It is a system that absolutely must be up for commentary.  Whereas we agree that the court is the formal place for justice, and that it should be respected as an institution aimed at actualizing the rule of law, we also believe that its meaning in the context of the issues of the day and whether it is working is always up for debate.  Participating in a democracy fundamentally means that none of its institutions or actors should be beyond opinion-making-- even when those opinions are critical or uncomfortable.  And progressive criminologists in particular should not be silent in doing newsmaking criminology.

Comment below or email us (crimcast@gmail.com) if you have found a response to the verdict that is particularly good at uncovering why it happened and what it means.

Human Rights Watch Film Festival

Nickie Phillips

Get tickets for the Human Rights Watch film festival here. Go here for a schedule of all the films showing at the NYC festival. "Anita" is sold out, but tickets remain for other shows.

Born this Way trailer


Pussy Riot: A Punk Prayer trailer


99% The Occupy Wall Street Collaborative Film trailer


An Unreal Dream: The Michael Morton Story


Child Sex Abuse Hysteria and Wrongful Convictions: The Jesse Friedman Case

Nickie Phillips

Between 1984 and 1995, at least 72 individuals were convicted during the national hysteria of mass child molestation and satanic ritual abuse cases.  Almost all of those convictions have since been overturned.  

The National Center for Reason and Justice (NCRJ) has published a white paper co-authored by Gavin de Becker (threat assessment expert and author of The Gift of Fear)  and Emily Horowitz, (sociology professor and co-director NCRJ), titled "Destruction of Innocence: The Friedman Case: How Coerced Testimony & Confessions Harm Children, Families & Communities for Decades After the Wrongful Convictions Occur." de Becker and Horowitz analyze the present-day, on-going impact of wrongful convictions with a specific focus on the Jesse Friedman case, well-known as the subject of the landmark documentary film, Capturing the FriedmansThough the U.S. Appeals Court has ruled that Jesse Friedman was likely wrongfully convicted as a result of the mass hysteria surrounding child sex abuse, the case has not yet been overturned.

The impact of wrongful convictions on those imprisoned is well-documented, however the impact on the children involved in these cases has often been neglected. Virtually all of the hundreds of children questioned by authorities in these wrongful conviction cases initially maintained that they were not sexually abused and were confident in their perceptions of reality. However, in an effort to gain prosecutions and satiate public demands for justice, these children were dragged to a place of confusion by well-meaning, but misguided authorities. The use of ethically questionable interview techniques and coercion resulted in a lingering mistrust of adults and shattered the children’s certainty about themselves and the world.

This paper provides new evidence and insight from extensive interviews with individuals that police alleged were molested in the Jesse Friedman case – and who now as adults confirm they were coerced into making false accusations. The consequences of false and hysteria-driven prosecutions such as this are vast. Law enforcement is robbed of resources to investigate actual sex crimes cases, the public’s faith in the legitimacy of such prosecutions is reduced, and the children involved may suffer long-term negative emotional and psychological effects. Providing resolution to the Friedman case through the overturning of the wrongful conviction, provides a unique opportunity to heal a community still suffering from the wounds of false accusation, confusion, and deceit.

To sign the petition urging the court to overturn the Jesse Friedman conviction, go here.

Community Forum on Intimate Partner Violence in LGBTSTGNC people of color communities

Nickie Phillips

If you're in the NYC area, consider supporting the Audre Lorde Project by attending this forum. 12/11/2012, Tuesday from 7-9pm

Real Talk: Community Responses to Partner Violence 375 Stuyvesant Ave

Directions:  375 Stuyvesant Ave (A, C to Utica, B25 to Fulton/Stuyvessant, B15 to Lewis/Bainbridge, B46 to MalcomX/Bainbridge, B26 to Halsey/Stuyvessant)

In 2011 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-affected (LGBTQH) people of color under 30 were nearly 4 times (3.98) as likely to experience physical [partner] violence. [AVP 2012] In November, Bed-Stuy lost a member of the community to partner violence.

Join the Safe OUTside the System Collective and the New York City Anti-Violence Project for an interactive community forum on Intimate Partner violence in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Two Spirit, Trans, and Gender Non Conforming (LGBTSTGNC) people of color communities. Explore community based responses to harm and practice skills to:

  • Identify signs of partner violence
  • Provide collective support for friends, partners, and community members effected
  • Prevent violence in our communities

* Open to all LGBTSTGNC POC and Allies.

* Snacks and metro cards will be provided.

Co-Sponsored by The Brooklyn Movement Center

Contact: Chelsea Johnson-Long at 718-596-0342 ext. 11, cjohnsonlong@alp.org

About The Brooklyn Movement Center: The Brooklyn Movement Center (BMC) is a community organizing group based in Bed-Stuy. The BMC brings together residents of Bed-Stuy and Crown Heights to identify issues of importance to them, build power and improve conditions in their community.

About the S.O.S. Collective: The Safe OUTside the System (SOS) Collective is an anti-violence program led by and for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Two Spirit, Trans, and Gender Non Conforming (LGBTSTGNC) people of color. We are devoted to challenging hate and police violence by using community based strategies rather than relying on the police. SOS is a project of the Audre Lorde Project. 

About AVP: We empower lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and HIV-affected communities and allies to end all forms of violence through organizing and education, and support survivors through counseling and advocacy.

No Way Out But One Documentary Film

Nickie Phillips

The Crime Report interviews documentary filmmaker Garland Waller about his new film, No Way Out But One, that follows Holly Collins and her children as they seek asylum in the Netherlands as a result of the domestic violence received at the hands of Collins’ ex-husband.

No Way Out But One Official Trailer from Garland Waller on Vimeo.

The film will premiere on the Documentary Channel on October 29, 2012

For more on events in NYC focused on Domestic Violence Awareness, go here.

Rape victims and child custody

Nickie Phillips

Missouri Representative Todd Akin's comments incorporating his bogus and offensive concept of "legitimate rape" have understandably provoked much outcry, particularly from rape victims. Here, attorney Shauna Prewitt writes about her pregnancy as the result of rape and the often neglected legal consequences--child custody.

"In the vast majority of states, a rapist has the same custody and visitation rights to a child born through his crime as other fathers enjoy."

 

Her paper, titled "Giving Birth to a “Rapist’s Child”: A Discussion and Analysis of the Limited Legal Protections Afforded to Women Who Become Mothers Through Rape" and published in the Georgetown Law Review, is available here.

UPDATE: New Mexico Considering New 'Forcible Rape' Language For Child Care Assistance Policy

"…if the amendment passes a woman whose rape is not ruled "forcible," such as a young victim of statutory rape, would be forced to contact her rapist for child support in order to receive any state assistance."

UPDATE: Governor pulls "forcible rape" language

Death Penalty: Words of the Condemned and Their Co-Victims

Nickie Phillips

In this episode we interview death penalty expert Dr. Scott Vollum, Assistant Professor at James Madison University. His book Last Words and the Death Penalty (2008) has just been released in paperback.

References

Arrigo, B.A. (2001). The "death row community": A community psychology perspective.  Deviant Behavior, 22: 43-71.

Arrigo, B.A. (2003), Victim vices, victim voices, and impact statements: On the place of emotion and the role of restorative justice in capital sentencing. Crime & Delinquency, 49(4), 603-626.

Christie, N (1977). Conflicts as property. British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1-15.

del Carmen, R. V., Vollum, S., Cheeseman, K., San Miguel, C., & Frantzen, D. (2008) The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Case Briefs, 2nd Edition. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Grann, D. (2009, September 7).  Trial by fire: Did Texas execute an innocent man?  The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2009/09/07/090907fa_fact_grann

Herman, S. (2010). Parallel justice for victims of crime.  Washington, DC: The National Center for Victims of Crime.

Vollum, S. (2008). Last words and the death penalty: Voices of the condemned and their co-victims.  New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

Creative work about Karla Faye Tucker:

Steve Earle, "Karla" (2002) [play]

Indigo Girls, "Faye Tucker" (1999) [song]